Gardner, and Lynne M. Haeffele. When to Use What Research Design.Research Design: Creating Robust Approaches for the Social Sciences.
Validity in Qualitative Research - Statistics SolutionsA well-designed meta-analysis depends upon strict adherence to the criteria used for selecting studies and the availability of information in each study to properly analyze their findings.The purpose of a historical research design is to collect, verify, and synthesize evidence from the past to establish facts that defend or refute a hypothesis.A broader, more complex research problem can be investigated because the researcher is not constrained by using only one method.If our strata were gender, we would sample both men and women.Chapter 5: Psychological Measurement Reliability and Validity of Measurement.
Cross-section studies are capable of using data from a large number of subjects and, unlike observational studies, is not geographically bound.For example if our strata were states we would make sure and sample from each of the fifty states.
When the study includes naturally formed groups, the variable under study is a subject variable.Conclusions about causal relationships are difficult to determine due to a variety of extraneous and confounding variables that exist in a social environment.Design is a useful approach for gaining background information on a particular topic.
There are no hidden controls or preemption of direction by the researcher.For example, if a corporation wanted to test the effectiveness of a new wellness program, they might decide to implement their program at one site and use a comporable site (no wellness program) as a control.Difficult to apply ethnographic and other qualitative methods to experimentally designed studies.As a consequence, the overall validity of the study will be undermined.Surveys are often classified as a type of observational research.Due to the lack of randominization in the cohort design, its external validity is lower than that of study designs where the researcher randomly assigns participants.Care was take such that kids in the treatment and the control groups were not roomed together.
For example, you cannot deliberately expose people to asbestos, you can only study its effects on those who have already been exposed.An observational study allows a useful insight into a phenomenon and avoids the ethical and practical difficulties of setting up a large and cumbersome research project.Assessing test-retest reliability requires using the measure on a group of people at one time, using it again on the.Examples, but not an exhaustive discussion, of threats to each validity will be provided.Vital information may be missing, making the case hard to interpret.Appropriate time order -- to conclude that causation was involved, one must see that cases were exposed to variation in the independent variable before variation in the dependent variable.Describe the kinds of evidence that would be relevant to assessing the reliability and validity of a particular measure.
We might conclude that old age thus results in less lung capacity.There are limitations in the use of metaphor as a vehicle of philosophical analysis.For example, the early research on cigarette smoking examine the covariation of cigarette smoking and a variety of lung diseases.
Because cross-sectional designs generally use survey techniques to gather data, they are relatively inexpensive and take up little time to conduct.Provides a method for overcoming small sample sizes in individual studies that previously may have had little relationship to each other.Discussion: Think back to the last college exam you took and think of the exam as a psychological measure.Approach provides the highest level of evidence for single studies.When researchers measure a construct that they assume to be consistent across time, then the scores they obtain should also be consistent across time.For example, the early studies on cigarette smoking did not manipulate how many cigarettes were smoked.The design is artificial, and results may not generalize well to the real world.A theoretical list (an actual list may not exist) of individuals or elements who make up a population is called a sampling frame.When a study uses pre-existing groups that are not naturally formed, the variable that is manipulated between the two groups is an independent variable (With the exception of no random assignment, the study looks similar in form to a true experiment).
The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an exploratory stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy.Maintaining the integrity of the original sample can be difficult over an extended period of time.In this case, moving on to study a second or more specific sample can be difficult.Experimental designs can be costly if special equipment or facilities are needed.