A major challenge with focus groups is getting participants to.It is therefore possible that the articles we evaluated are of a higher profile than other non-open-access articles and may be more likely to serve as examples for other researchers.While this gave us easy and immediate access to a manageable sample of studies and also allows our readers to easily check our results, a quick search without the open access filter indicates that our sample represents less than 20% of all published focus group studies in 2008.
However, when we checked with the literature, referrals to recommendations were not always accurate.The often poor and inconsistent reporting seen in these studies may also reflect the lack of clear, evidence-based guidance about deciding on sample size.As a representative sample of consumers targeted by the company, a focus group can offer insights consistent with those shared by the broader target market.This paper introduces and reviews the use of focus group methodology across the social sciences, identifying three different research traditions within which it has.With qualitative research, researchers seek more open and complete perspectives on the brand or product.This may be a consequence of the fact that qualitative studies are still in a minority in health science journals.
We know relatively little about how our sample might differ from the remaining 80% of available studies.
Focus Group: Reviews and Practices - Applied science
Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research.Those papers that did report numbers of groups and participants showed a great range in these numbers, but data distribution was positively skewed, i.e. there were many studies with a few focus groups and few studies with high numbers of focus groups (Table 1 ).In addition, a number of practical limitations arise that can limit the number of focus groups conducted, including limited money and time.Of the 220 studies included, 183 (83,2%) gave no explanation for number of focus groups (i.e. 37 did give some type of explanation).
Greenbaum, T. (1998). The handbook for focus group research, second edition.Based on these findings we suggest that journals adopt more stringent requirements for focus group method reporting.
Learn how to plan, prepare, conduct, and use focus group results to receive qualitative data for deeper understanding of community issues.Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity as a field research tool.This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results.We chose studies published in 2008 as we started working with the review in 2009 and wanted to review the state of the art in the field.Thorough reporting of methods allows readers to assess the quality and relevance of research findings.Focus group studies are increasingly published in health related journals, but we know little about how researchers use this method, particularly how they determine.On the other hand, when authors had included only a small number of focus groups, they frequently described this as a limitation.
Int J Integr Care. 2008, 8: Google Scholar Shuval K, Weissblueth E, Brezis M, Araida A, Faridi Z, Ali A, Katz DL: The Role of Culture, Environment, and Religion in the Promotion of Physical Activity Among Arab Israelis.We also found some examples of adequate reporting regarding point of saturation.
Six studies referred to rules of thumb in the literature, three stated that they were unable to organize more groups for practical reasons, while 28 studies stated that they had reached a point of saturation.The reason for this was mainly inconsistencies in the description of the methodological procedures.Through our electronic database search we identified 240 papers published in 2008.Focus group moderators should pose questions in a way that does not lead group members to provide desired responses, but rather honest and insightful responses.This lack of empirical evidence suggests that advice offered with regard to sample size is, as a rule, based on common assumptions or personal experience with the method.There are some uncertainties in our findings due to the poor reporting in the material.
Focus Group | Usability Body of Knowledge
In addition, we carried out a matrix-based qualitative analysis of the texts.
Research Methods : Case Studies, Interviews & Focus GroupsWhile this knowledge does not directly offer advice regarding how to achieve the optimal number of focus groups, it does highlight an issue that authors should be aware of when determining number of groups.The recommendations and references to what is common regarding number of groups vary within these text books.However, the poor reporting among these authors also seem to indicate confusion about when and how to decide the number of focus groups, which may reflect a lack of properly described, consistent advice to researchers wishing to carry out focus group-based data collection.View Article Google Scholar Sandelowski M: Sample-size in qualitative research.Focus Groups Anita Gibbs Dr Anita Gibbs is a Research Officer at the Probation Studies Unit, Centre for Criminological Research, Oxford University.Focus groups are little used in feminist psychology, despite their methodological advantages.Focus Group Features Within a focus group, a moderator poses a series of questions intended to gain insight about the way the group views the brand, product and related images, slogans, concepts or symbols.
Focus-group interview and data analysis Fatemeh Rabiee School of Health and Policy Studies, University of Central England, Birmingham B42 2SU, UK.We have therefore also included mixed method studies, where the focus group interviews are often part of a predominantly quantitative design.This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.Then, as they expect data to be saturated, their critical sense could be undermined when drawing conclusions about saturation.However, the authors usually underline that these are only rules of thumb and that the number of focus groups depends on the complexity of the research question and the composition of the groups.